Vulkan-based implementation of D3D9, D3D10 and D3D11 for Linux / Wine
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README.md

DXVK

A Vulkan-based translation layer for Direct3D 9/10/11 which allows running 3D applications on Linux using Wine.

For the current status of the project, please refer to the project wiki.

The most recent development builds can be found here.

Release builds can be found here.

How to use

In order to install a DXVK package obtained from the release page into a given wine prefix, copy or symlink the DLLs into the following directories as follows, then open winecfg and manually add DLL overrides for d3d11, d3d10core, dxgi, and d3d9.

In a default Wine prefix that would be as follows:

export WINEPREFIX=/path/to/wineprefix
cp x64/*.dll $WINEPREFIX/drive_c/windows/system32
cp x32/*.dll $WINEPREFIX/drive_c/windows/syswow64
winecfg

For a pure 32-bit Wine prefix (non default) the 32-bit DLLs instead go to the system32 directory:

export WINEPREFIX=/path/to/wineprefix
cp x32/*.dll $WINEPREFIX/drive_c/windows/system32
winecfg

Verify that your application uses DXVK instead of wined3d by enabling the HUD (see notes below).

In order to remove DXVK from a prefix, remove the DLLs and DLL overrides, and run wineboot -u to restore the original DLL files.

Tools such as Steam Play, Lutris, Bottles, Heroic Launcher, etc will automatically handle setup of dxvk on their own when enabled.

Notes on Vulkan drivers

Before reporting an issue, please check the Wiki page on the current driver status and make sure you run a recent enough driver version for your hardware.

Build instructions

In order to pull in all submodules that are needed for building, clone the repository using the following command:

git clone --recursive https://github.com/doitsujin/dxvk.git

Requirements:

Building DLLs

The simple way

Inside the DXVK directory, run:

./package-release.sh master /your/target/directory --no-package

This will create a folder dxvk-master in /your/target/directory, which contains both 32-bit and 64-bit versions of DXVK, which can be set up in the same way as the release versions as noted above.

In order to preserve the build directories for development, pass --dev-build to the script. This option implies --no-package. After making changes to the source code, you can then do the following to rebuild DXVK:

# change to build.32 for 32-bit
cd /your/target/directory/build.64
ninja install

Compiling manually

# 64-bit build. For 32-bit builds, replace
# build-win64.txt with build-win32.txt
meson setup --cross-file build-win64.txt --buildtype release --prefix /your/dxvk/directory build.w64
cd build.w64
ninja install

The D3D9, D3D10, D3D11 and DXGI DLLs will be located in /your/dxvk/directory/bin. Setup has to be done manually in this case.

Online multi-player games

Manipulation of Direct3D libraries in multi-player games may be considered cheating and can get your account banned. This may also apply to single-player games with an embedded or dedicated multiplayer portion. Use at your own risk.

Logs

When used with Wine, DXVK will print log messages to stderr. Additionally, standalone log files can optionally be generated by setting the DXVK_LOG_PATH variable, where log files in the given directory will be called app_d3d11.log, app_dxgi.log etc., where app is the name of the game executable.

On Windows, log files will be created in the game's working directory by default, which is usually next to the game executable.

HUD

The DXVK_HUD environment variable controls a HUD which can display the framerate and some stat counters. It accepts a comma-separated list of the following options:

  • devinfo: Displays the name of the GPU and the driver version.
  • fps: Shows the current frame rate.
  • frametimes: Shows a frame time graph.
  • submissions: Shows the number of command buffers submitted per frame.
  • drawcalls: Shows the number of draw calls and render passes per frame.
  • pipelines: Shows the total number of graphics and compute pipelines.
  • descriptors: Shows the number of descriptor pools and descriptor sets.
  • memory: Shows the amount of device memory allocated and used.
  • gpuload: Shows estimated GPU load. May be inaccurate.
  • version: Shows DXVK version.
  • api: Shows the D3D feature level used by the application.
  • cs: Shows worker thread statistics.
  • compiler: Shows shader compiler activity
  • samplers: Shows the current number of sampler pairs used [D3D9 Only]
  • scale=x: Scales the HUD by a factor of x (e.g. 1.5)
  • opacity=y: Adjusts the HUD opacity by a factor of y (e.g. 0.5, 1.0 being fully opaque).

Additionally, DXVK_HUD=1 has the same effect as DXVK_HUD=devinfo,fps, and DXVK_HUD=full enables all available HUD elements.

Frame rate limit

The DXVK_FRAME_RATE environment variable can be used to limit the frame rate. A value of 0 uncaps the frame rate, while any positive value will limit rendering to the given number of frames per second. Alternatively, the configuration file can be used.

Device filter

Some applications do not provide a method to select a different GPU. In that case, DXVK can be forced to use a given device:

  • DXVK_FILTER_DEVICE_NAME="Device Name" Selects devices with a matching Vulkan device name, which can be retrieved with tools such as vulkaninfo. Matches on substrings, so "VEGA" or "AMD RADV VEGA10" is supported if the full device name is "AMD RADV VEGA10 (LLVM 9.0.0)", for example. If the substring matches more than one device, the first device matched will be used.

Note: If the device filter is configured incorrectly, it may filter out all devices and applications will be unable to create a D3D device.

Graphics Pipeline Library

On drivers which support VK_EXT_graphics_pipeline_library Vulkan shaders will be compiled at the time the game loads its D3D shaders, rather than at draw time. This reduces or eliminates shader compile stutter in many games when compared to the previous system.

In games that load their shaders during loading screens or in the menu, this can lead to prolonged periods of very high CPU utilization, especially on weaker CPUs. For affected games it is recommended to wait for shader compilation to finish before starting the game to avoid stutter and low performance. Shader compiler activity can be monitored with DXVK_HUD=compiler.

This feature largely replaces the state cache.

Note: Games which only load their D3D shaders at draw time (e.g. most Unreal Engine games) will still exhibit some stutter, although it should still be less severe than without this feature.

State cache

DXVK caches pipeline state by default, so that shaders can be recompiled ahead of time on subsequent runs of an application, even if the driver's own shader cache got invalidated in the meantime. This cache is enabled by default, and generally reduces stuttering.

The following environment variables can be used to control the cache:

  • DXVK_STATE_CACHE: Controls the state cache. The following values are supported:
    • disable: Disables the cache entirely.
    • reset: Clears the cache file.
  • DXVK_STATE_CACHE_PATH=/some/directory Specifies a directory where to put the cache files. Defaults to the current working directory of the application.

This feature is mostly only relevant on systems without support for VK_EXT_graphics_pipeline_library

Debugging

The following environment variables can be used for debugging purposes.

  • VK_INSTANCE_LAYERS=VK_LAYER_KHRONOS_validation Enables Vulkan debug layers. Highly recommended for troubleshooting rendering issues and driver crashes. Requires the Vulkan SDK to be installed on the host system.
  • DXVK_LOG_LEVEL=none|error|warn|info|debug Controls message logging.
  • DXVK_LOG_PATH=/some/directory Changes path where log files are stored. Set to none to disable log file creation entirely, without disabling logging.
  • DXVK_DEBUG=markers|validation Enables use of the VK_EXT_debug_utils extension for translating performance event markers, or to enable Vulkan validation, respecticely.
  • DXVK_CONFIG_FILE=/xxx/dxvk.conf Sets path to the configuration file.
  • DXVK_CONFIG="dxgi.hideAmdGpu = True; dxgi.syncInterval = 0" Can be used to set config variables through the environment instead of a configuration file using the same syntax. ; is used as a seperator.

Troubleshooting

DXVK requires threading support from your mingw-w64 build environment. If you are missing this, you may see "error: std::cv_status has not been declared" or similar threading related errors.

On Debian and Ubuntu, this can be resolved by using the posix alternate, which supports threading. For example, choose the posix alternate from these commands:

update-alternatives --config x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc
update-alternatives --config x86_64-w64-mingw32-g++
update-alternatives --config i686-w64-mingw32-gcc
update-alternatives --config i686-w64-mingw32-g++

For non debian based distros, make sure that your mingw-w64-gcc cross compiler does have --enable-threads=posix enabled during configure. If your distro does ship its mingw-w64-gcc binary with --enable-threads=win32 you might have to recompile locally or open a bug at your distro's bugtracker to ask for it.

DXVK Native

DXVK Native is a version of DXVK which allows it to be used natively without Wine.

This is primarily useful for game and application ports to either avoid having to write another rendering backend, or to help with port bringup during development.

Release builds are built using the Steam Runtime.

How does it work?

DXVK Native replaces certain Windows-isms with a platform and framework-agnostic replacement, for example, HWNDs can become SDL_Window*s, etc. All it takes to do that is to add another WSI backend.

Note: DXVK Native requires a backend to be explicitly set via the DXVK_WSI_DRIVER environment variable. The current built-in options are SDL2 and GLFW.

DXVK Native comes with a slim set of Windows header definitions required for D3D9/11 and the MinGW headers for D3D9/11. In most cases, it will end up being plug and play with your renderer, but there may be certain teething issues such as:

  • __uuidof(type) is supported, but __uuidof(variable) is not supported. Use __uuidof_var(variable) instead.